SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: CLASSIFICATION
Graviola soursop (Annona Muricata L.) is a species of the anonaceae family, composed of several species of the guanabani group, and of the ebanona branch.
Kingdom: | Plantae |
Branch: | magnoliophyta |
Class: | Magnoliopsid |
Order: | Magnolias |
Family: | Annonaceae |
Gender: | anna |
Species: | Anona Muricata L.|
It is consumed pure or in juice, liqueur and marmalade. All components
of the fruit can be used for several purposes.
The pure fruit: The Graviola Corossol (Annonamuricata) is consumed in its pure state or in fruit salads or to prepare juices, ice creams, desserts and cakes.
The industrial fruit: Octopus is sold fresh or frozen, concentrated, in nectar, jelly or puree. Producing countries export canned juices in industrial presentation. In Guatemala, it is made into bottled soft drinks and in Mexico canned fruit with its seeds. Octopus is marketed in the form of hermetic bags, cardboard or metal cans. This exotic fruit lends itself perfectly to the preparation of ice creams, milkshakes, desserts and sweets, (fruit) salads and gourmet dishes, or liqueur mixes. In Indonesia the unripe fruit is cooked into vegetables and used in soup, and in Brazil the fruit is grilled or cooked, without peeling.
SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT
The Corossolier is a modest-sized tree, which can reach 10 meters, with dense foliage and leathery, simple, large and dark green leaves. By its shape.
The fruit resembles the chirimoya, a species of the same genus (A.cherimolia) and of the same family. The fruit weighs between 2 and 4 kilos. The bark is green, covered with thorns, dark and shiny, which becomes dull when the fruit is ripe.
The flesh is soft, white (sometimes slightly yellowish) fleshy and has a marked sour taste. Inside the fruit, there are many black seeds that are easily detached. The fruit is often used to prepare desserts, such as meringues and mousses. The fruit must be picked before it is ripe.
It is very popular, throughout Latin America, to prepare delicious ice creams, drinks and jams.
SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES
Major phytochemicals include: annocatalin, annohexocin, annomonicin, annomontacin, annomuricatin A & B, annomuricin A until E, annomutacin, annonacin, (various iso, cis, uno, etc), annonacinone, annopentocin A until C, cis-annonacin , cis-corossolone, cohibin A until D, corepoxylone, coronin, corossolin, corossolone, donhexocin, epomuricenin A and B, gigantetrocin, gigantetrocin A & B, gigantetrocinone, gigantetronenin, goniothalamicin, isoannonacin, javoricin, montanacin, montecristin, muracin A until G , muricapentocin, muricatalicin, muricatalin, muri-catenol, muricatetrocin A & B muricatin D, muricatocin A until C muricin H, muricin I, muricoreacin, murihexocin 3, murihexocin A until C, murihexol, murisolin, robustocin, rolliniastatin 1 & 2, saba -delincuencia, solamin, uvariamicin I and IV, xylomaticin.
SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: ACTION OF ACETONINS ON CELLS
Annonaceae acetogenesis occurs only in the Annonaceae family. Several acetogens exhibit antitumor, antiparasitic, pesticide, antiprotozoal, antifeedant, antihelminthic, and antimicrobial activities. Medicine has shown its interest in chemicals with powerful antitumor characteristics. So far, several research groups have attempted to synthesize these chemicals for the creation of new chemotherapeutic drugs.
During a review of these natural chemicals in a natural products journal, the following observation was made: “Acetogenesis of Annonaceae is the antitumor agent and new pesticides that occur only in Annonaceae of the soursop graviola family”.
From the chemical point of view, they are derivatives of long chain fatty acids.
Biologically, they show their potent bioactivities by depleting mitochondria complex I ATP levels and blocking NADH oxidase from tumor cell plasma membranes, thereby frustrating the mechanisms ATP, driven by resistance.
RESEARCH AROUND GRAVIOLA COROSSOL
Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the plant:
At Pardue University in California, acetogenins have been shown to selectively block cancer cells, as well as the growth of cancer cells, which are resistant to adriamicin (chemotherapeutic drug), respecting cell integrity healthy tissues. In another study by the same university, the potency of soursop graviola acetogenins is proven to be extremely strong, with an ED50 (lethal dose 50) of 9-10 micrograms per milliliter. This corresponds to a potency 10,000 times more potent than adriamicin.
Studies carried out between 1998-2000 by McLaughlin and Chih Hw, Chui HF reveal that acetogenins block complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation chain which blocks the formation of ATP, that is the energy which the carcinogenic cell needs and which triggers its P glycoprotein bomb, which keeps it active. Acetogenins also block ubiquinone oxidase, an enzyme dependent on NADH and typical of the plasma membrane of the carcinogenic cell. McLaughlin's research focused on the acetogenins Bullatacin and Bullatacinone.
Studies in the Caribbean prove that there is a possible link between the consumption of graviola soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease, thanks to its high concentration of annonacins, which is 15 mg/fruit and 36 mg/cane of juice markets. This concentration is 10 times greater than soursop graviola leaf tea (140 mg/cup).
In March 2002, Japanese researchers published a revealing study, performed in vivo, on rats that were injected with Lewis lung cancer cells. While a third of the rats received no treatment, another third were treated with adriamicin, the last third took the main acetogenin of Annona Muricata L., called “annonacin” (in a dose of 10 mg/kg)
SOURSOP – GRVAIOLA: CONTRAINDICATIONS
Graviola soursop has a long tradition in the use of natural and traditional medicine thanks to its virtues, which have been well known for centuries.
In the Peruvian Andes, tea from the leaves is prepared to cure colds, and the crushed seeds are used to kill parasites.
In the Peruvian Amazon, the leaves and the skin are used to fight diabetes, or as a tranquilizer and antispasmodic.
In the Brazilian Amazon a leaf infusion is drunk to relieve liver problems.
In Jamaica, Haiti and the western Andes the juice of the fruit is used against fever, parasites and diarrhoea. The peel and leaves are used as an antispasmodic and heart calmant, to relieve coughs, flu, asthma, hypertension and parasites.
Recommended in case of constipation and to increase the intestinal flora, reduces hyperacidity. Octopus has digestive effects and the ripe fruit has diuretic properties and is an excellent remedy for hematuria and urethritis.
Fights colic, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, flu, hypertension, insomnia, kidney pain, stress, palpitations and pediculosis, ringworm and internal ulcers.
The fruit is also praised for its antibacterial, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, astringent, cytotoxic, febrifuge, hypotensive, insecticide, pectoral, calming, stomach, vasodilator and vermifuge properties.
SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: CONCLUSIONS
As we have seen, the consumption of graviola soursop has many benefits to help us fight certain malignant processes. This is supported not only by preclinical studies but also, in a way, by traditional medicine, which uses the leaves of soursop graviola to cure superficial tumors through leaf plasters.
If the recommended dosage is not exceeded, graviola soursop is a powerful weapon of nature, which has already proven its success in certain neoplasias. However, more (clinical) studies should be carried out and disclosed, so that we can fight against cancer and other ailments with soursop graviola.
SOURSOP – GRAVIOLA: CONTRAINDICATIONS
Graviola soursop may potentiate antidepressant medications and interfere with MAO-A inhibitor medications.
Pregnant women should avoid the consumption of graviola soursop since it could be counterproductive for pregnancy.